Economy

ECONOMY

Cameroon for several years experienced an economic boom from sectors like the exportation of agricultural products (Coffee, cocoa and cotton) and petroleum. But with a fall in world prices for primary products, Cameroon experienced serious crises. After its budgetary year of 1985-1986, its economy went into serious recession. An evaluation during this period revealed that the economy had experienced a brutal drop in revenue from exportation. This drop affected petroleum as well as other primary products that were exported at the time. This drop was estimated at about 329 billion FCFA, this being about 8.2 % of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Degradation of the economic sector increased further between 1986-1987 due to the persistent drop in the price of the main products exported (Petroleum, coffee, cocoa and cotton). Economic growth rate was henceforth negative. From 1985 to 1988, exchange rated dropped by half.

 

From 1994, new economic policies based on monetary adjustments were put in place; leading to a gradual change in trends. Remarkable changes were made at the level of exportation as well as on the general scenario of government’s budget. It was only later in August 1997 that the government was able to come to terms with the IMF after successfully going through a reference program followed up by this institution. The execution of this program came alongside a voluntary action staged by the government to portray a better image of credibility of Cameroon abroad; this by paying back about

 

05 billion dollars of debts owed. The government also went ahead to closely associate with the private and public sector towards the evaluation of a three year economic and financial program as well as negotiating on a financial agreement with the IMF.

 

From 1996-1997 to 1999-2000, the mean annual growth of the GDP stood at 4.5% and inflation, measured by the index of the final price of consumption by homes was redressed to less than 1%. The situation with public finance greatly improved, thanks to a better mobilization of funds and a rationalization of national expenses.

 

As concerns employment, the restructuring of enterprises of the public and private sector, which led to the closure of some companies on the one hand and the freezing of recruitment in the public service on the other hand led to increasing unemployment. In 2001, unemployment affected more than 12% of the active population, 16% in urban areas and 8% in rural areas; with record highs in Douala and Yaounde that registered 18% and 14% respectively. Cameroon has over the years experienced a rapid urbanization, greatly spurred up by rural exodus. According to available statistics, more than half of the population of the country lives in towns. The average growth rate of the country is 5% in urban areas, with Yaounde and Douala having rates of 7% and 6.4% respectively.

LES PRINCIPAUX SECTEURS ÉCONOMIQUES

 

Le secteur primaire contribue à environ 20% du PIB. Il emploie plus de 61% de la population active. Avant l'avènement du commerce du pétrole (qui pèse aujourd'hui à lui seul plus de 8% du PIB), l'agriculture était le pilier économique du pays. Le Cameroun reste l'un des principaux producteurs mondiaux de certaines denrées alimentaires, notamment le cacao, le café, les bananes, les produits dérivés de la palme, mais aussi le tabac, le caoutchouc et le coton. La pêche et la sylviculture sont deux autres activités importantes du pays. Parmi les principales ressources minérales du Cameroun, on retrouve le minerai de bauxite et le fer.

 

Le secteur secondaire compte pour 30% du PIB. Les principales industries du pays sont l’industrie agroalimentaire, la scierie, la fabrication de biens de consommation légers et le textile.

 

Le secteur tertiaire représente près de la moitié du PIB (47% en 2013) et emploie près de 29% de la population active. Ce secteur profite de l'activité économique créée autour de grands projets énergétiques. Le secteur des services est en pleine croissance, poussé en particulier par l'essor des télécommunications et du trafic aérien.

Despite being one of the top sub-Saharan economies in terms of primary commodity thanks to its petroleum and to favorable agricultural conditions, Cameroon has a large civil service and an underdeveloped business sector like many of its neighbours.

 

Nevertheless with the help of IMF and the World Bank organisations the government has tried hard to improve business investment, increase productivity in agriculture, improve trade, and recapitalize the nation's banks.

Plannifier pour reussir - le DSCE

 

Le DSCE 2010-20 fournit un cadre au développement territorial, mais sa déclinaison en une politique volontariste d’inclusion spatiale tarde à se matérialiser. Or les tensions latentes et le sentiment d’exclusion de diverses communautés régionales sont exacerbés par les bouleversements démographiques engendrés par la présence des réfugiés fuyant des pays limitrophes. S’ajoutent les grands projets d’infrastructures qui, au-delà de leurs effets bénéfiques en termes d’aménagement du territoire et de développement, exercent une forte pression sur les terres arables et une mutation de la propriété du capital productif dans les zones rurales. Ces mutations sont lourdes de menaces pour le maintien de la paix et de la cohésion sociale séculaires au Cameroun. Sont notamment concernés les environs du barrage de Lom Pangar, du barrage de Memve’elé, du port en eau profonde de Kribi et des mines de fer à Mbalam, dans la région orientale.

 

 

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